EnglishCafe - Grammar, Conversation, Tense and Aspect, Modality -
 


Menu


Let's feel English in mind to use it naturally.
Grammar, Conversation, Tense and Aspect, Modality are in this site.
The sense of time in English 1
(primary course)
The sense of time in English 2
(intermediate course)
Modal Auxiliary
Sherry's Diary
To the Japanese page
Custom Search



The sense of time in English (Tense and Aspect)
"The sense of time in English" is written new to feel the time in English. There are forms of English, The past tense, the present tense, the present perfect tense and future expression (the future tense) etc.
How do you use these forms, or when do you use them, or what do you use them for?
The meanings, especially time sense, are in them. If you feel the sense, you can put the form in mind naturally. (When "*" is added to a example of the text, it means an unacceptable example.)

Please make a choice.
For the primary course
For the intermediate course






Modal Auxiliary
The mood is the inflection which means the speaker's feelings. (This is explained in the introduction.) The modal auxiliary is the auxiliary verb which also means the feelings. This text explains this with the subjectiveness and the objectiveness. These are explained in the introduction.
( In the text, "*" is sometimes put before a example, it means unacceptable. )

Please click the following.
For modal auxiliary





Sherry's Dialy
This is the expressions of the English conversation. We give them with the original story. So we can enjoy them easily. The story is a cats' story. The leading cat is Sherry, this is Sherry's Diary.
(Sometimes the small paw is put on the Today's points. This means another story of Sherr's Diary. Enjoy, please.)

Please click the following.
For Sherry's Diary








The sense of time in English 1
The primary course



1. The time sense in the present
1.1. The main usage of the present tense
1.2. Summary of the present tense
1.3. The exceptional usage as the present tense which is used in adverbial clause of time or a condition

2. The time sense in the past 1 (The past tense)
2.1. The main usage of the past tense
2.2. Summary of the past tense
2.3. The exceptional usage as the past tense which is used as the polite expression

3. The time sense in the past 2 (The present perfect form)
3.1. The main usage of the present perfect form
3.1.1. Completive and Resultative
3.1.2. Continuous
3.1.3. Experiential
3.2. The difference between the past tense and the present perfect form (Summary of this chapter)

4. The time sense in the future
4.1. The near future
4.1.1. The future expression of the present tense
4.1.2. The future expression of the present progressive form
4.1.3. The future expression of "be going to"
4.2. The far future
4.2.1. The future expression of "will"
4.3. Summary of the future expression
4.4. The exceptional future expressions
4.4.1. The future progressive form and the matter of course
4.4.2. The matter of course and the polite expression

5. The time sense of the progressive form
5.1. The variety of the verbs and the progressive form
5.2. The main usage of the progressive form
5.2.1. The durative 1
5.2.2. The durative 2 (The speaker's irritation)
5.2.3. Temporary 1 (The act)
5.2.4. Temporary 2 (Stative)
5.2.5. Incompletive
5.2.6. Summary of the progressive form
5.3. The perfect progressive form
5.3.1. The present perfect progressive form
5.3.2. The present perfect progressive form 2
5.3.3. The present perfect progressive form 3
5.4. The present perfect progressive form and the present progressive form

6. Conclusion











The sense of time in English 2
The intermediate course


Introduction
Introduction


Prologue Time and tense and aspect

Time and tense and aspect
0.1. The universality of time and the time line

0.2. The relationship of time, tense and aspect


Chapter 1 The present tense as the center of the time line

The present tense as the center of the time line
1.1. The fundamental usage of the present tense
1.1.1. The time representation of the present tense

1.1.2. The main four usages of the present tense
1.1.2.1. Stative and Characteristic
1.1.2.2. Instantaneous
1.1.2.3. Generic
1.1.2.4. Habitual
1.1.3. The meaning of the present tense
1.2. The exceptional usages of the present tense
1.2.1 The historical present

1.2.2. The usage which is parallel to the historical present
1.2.3. The present tense of the future expression
1.2.4. The present tense in the time and the conditional adverb clauses
1.3. Summary of this chapter


Chapter 2 The left time 1

The left time 1
2.1. The two forms in English
2.2. The usage of the past tense
2.2.1. The time representation of the past tense

2.2.2. The main usage of the past tense
2.2.2.1. Active as the past
2.2.2.2. Stative as the past
2.2.2.3. Habitual as the past
2.2.3. The comparison with the present tense, and the meanings of M
2.3. The other past tense
2.3.1. "Used to" and "would"

2.3.2. "Could" and "be able to"
2.3.3. The polite expression


Chapter 3 The left time 2

The left time 2
3.1. The fundamental usage of the present perfect form
3.1.1. The time representation of the present perfect form

3.1.2. The main usage of the present perfect form
3.1.2.1. Perfective and Resultative
3.1.2.2. Continuous
3.1.2.3. Experiential
3.2. The past tense and the present perfect form
3.3. The fundamental usage of the past perfect form
3.3.1. The time representation of the past perfect form

3.3.2. The two usages of the past perfect form
3.3.3. The paraphrase of the past perfect form
3.3.4. The past perfect form of the before clause
3.4. Summary of this chapter and the previous chapter


Chapter 4 The right time

The right time
4.1. The future expression and the time representation in English
4.1.1. The time representation of the future expression

4.1.2. The future expression in English
4.2. The near future
4.2.1. The present tense representing the future expression

4.2.2. The present progressive form representing the future expression
4.2.3. Be going to
4.3. The far future
4.3.1. Will and shall

4.3.2. Will and shall with the progressive form
4.4. The exceptional future expression
4.4.1. Will and shall with the progressive form representing the event as a matter of course

4.4.2. Will and shall with the progressive form representing a polite expression
4.5. The fundamental usage of the future perfect form
4.5.1. The time representation of the future perfect form

4.5.2. The main usage of the future perfect form
4.5.3. The prediction and the paraphrase of the future perfect form
4.6. Summary of this chapter



Chapter 5 The definition of M

The definition of M
5.1. The time representation of the future expression

5.2. The time representation of the past forms
5.3. Summary of this chapter


Chapter 6 The progressive form

The progressive form
6.1. The active verb and the stative verb

6.2. The main usage of the progressive form
6.2.1. The time representation of the progressive form

6.2.2. The duration of the active verb
6.2.3. The incompletive act of the active verb
6.2.4. The temporariness of the active verb
6.2.5. The temporariness of the stative verb
6.3. The perfect progressive form
6.3.1. The present perfect progressive form

6.3.2. The present perfect progressive form and the present progressive form
6.3.3. The past perfect progressive form
6.3.4. The future perfect progressive form
6.4. The exceptional progressive form
6.4.1. The progressive form representing the future

6.4.2. The irritation of the progressive form
6.4.3. The progressive form representing the polite expression
6.4.4. The progressive form representing simultaneous
6.5. Summary of this chapter


Chapter 7 The sequence of tense

The sequence of tense
7.1. The direct speech and the indirect speech

7.2. The exceptional sequence of tense
7.2.1. The effective utterance

7.2.2. The historical utterance and the modal auxiliary
7.3. Summary of this chapter


Chapter 8 The subjunctive mood

The subjunctive mood
8.1. The subjuncitve mood
8.1.1. The present subjunctive mood

8.1.2. The past subjunctive mood
8.1.3. The subjuncitve past perfect
8.2. The other subjunctive moods
8.2.1. The subjunctive mood of "wish"

8.2.2. The subjunctive mood of "as if"
8.3. Summary of this chapter


The conclusion of this text

The conclusion of this text


Bibliography

Time feeling










Modal Auxiliary

Introduction
0.1. The mood
0.2. The epistemic usage and the root usage ( subjective and objective)
0.3. The meaning of the modal auxiliaries
0.4. The present tense and the past tense


The chapter 1. The main usages of the modal auxiliary verb
1. can ( objectiveness)
1.1. ability ( objective meaning)
1.2. The permission ( objective meaning)
1.3. The possibility ( objectiveness - subjective meaning)

2. May ( subjectiveness)
2.1. The permission ( subjectiveness - objective meaning)
2.2. The possibility ( sujectiveness)

3. Will ( subjectiveness)
3.1. The volition ( subjectiveness - objective meaning)
3.2. The prediction ( subjectiveness)

4. Shall ( subjectiveness)
4.1. Volition and obligation ( subjectiveness - object meaning)
4.2. The prediction ( subject meaning)

5. Should ( the past tense of "shall")
5.1. Should ( objectiveness)
5.1.1. The obligation ( objectiveness)
5.1.2. The possibility ( objectiveness - subject meaning)
5.2. The emotional should

6. Must ( subjectiveness)
6.1. The obligation ( subjectiveness - objective meaning)
6.2. The necessity ( subjective meaning)

7. have to ( objectiveness)
7.1. The obligation ( objective meaning)
7.2. The necessity ( objectiveness - subjective meaning)

8. Ought ot ( subjectiveness)
8.1. The obligation ( objective meaning)
8.2. The possibility ( objectiveness - subjective meaning)

9. Need ( objectiveness)

10. Dare ( objectiveness)


The chapter 2. The others
1. The indirect speech and the modal auxiliary

2. The subjunctive mood
2.1. The subjunctive mood
2.2. The polite expression

3. The co-occurrence with the perfect form

4. The negative sentence and the interrogativer sentence
4.1. The negative sentence
4.2. The interrogative sentence


Bibliography












Sherry's Diary

Page 1
1. It's warm for the end of autumn and a fine day.
- How to say the weather.-
2. How's it going?
- The expression of the greetings.-
3. I'm looking for a place.
- Conversation in the shop.-


Page 2
1. Can you tell me the way to the tennis court from here?
- How to ask the way.-
2. Go straight until you come to the end.
- How to tell someone the way.-
- until and by. -
3. You're welcome.
- How to reply to thanks.-
4. I can't help worrying about him.
- The expression of I can't avoid.-


Page 3
1. While the other was drinking water.
- How to use while (progress).-
2. When we want to see someone.
- How to use want to (hope)-
- How to use when (as the conjunction) -
3. We can usually find them here, the place where cats gather.
- About the frequency adverbs, always and usually etc.-
4. Have you heard the rumor?
- Chat the unverified news.-


Page 4
1. The three cats were talking with each other.
- How to use each other.-
- The differences between each and all.-
- How to use the other and the others.-
2. Is that true?
3. I can't believe it!
- How to say when we are surprised.-
4. Who told you that, Buttered?
- How to ask where the topic was talked.-


Page 5
1. A cat walked toward the wide entrance.
- The differeces between toward and along.-
2. Where have you been?
- About the present perfect form (Part 1).-
Note. Three stories high
- How to say the floor name in American English and British English.-

Page 6
1. Here you are.
- The expression when we give something.-
2. He has studied the international situation for 10 years.
- About the present perfect form (Part 2).-
- How long + the present perfect form.-
Note. How long, how much etc.
- How to use how long and how much, how many etc.-

Page 7
1. May I come in?
- How to say when we get into someone's room.-
2. Do you have a minute?
- How to say when we first talk to someone.-
- How to use "Wait a minute."-
3. Can I ask you a favor?
- How to say when we want someone to do something. -
- How to say when we need the permission with "Can I."-
4. What do you mean?
- if we want to know someone's idea.-
5. Can you extend the deadline for a few days?
- How to say when we ask someone.-
6. Let's see.
- How to say when we need time.-
Note. I'm at a loss, is out of the question, Rickey.
- How to use out of the question.-

Page 8
1. Thank you, Mr. Collins!
- How to call the teacher.-
2. Hello.
- How to answer on the phone.-
3. Guess what?
- As the starting point of the talking.-
4. How about tonight?
- How to use "how about" to ask or invite etc.-
- How to use "Me, too."-
- How to use "What kind of."-

Page 9
1. I'll treat you.
- How to say when we pay for the hearer.-
2. No thanks but let's split the bill.
- How to say when we pay one by one.-
- How to use "Let's" to invite etc.-
3. He is much more intelligent than Rickey.
- How to say when we compare.-
4. Sleeping is the privilege of cats, isn't it?
- How to use the tag question.-
Note. How about our favorite bar at 8.
- How to use favorite.-

Page 10
1. Mary is a lecturer too and came to the university recently.
- How to use "too" and "either."-
2. Have you got used to living in this city?
- How to use get used to and be used to.-
3. It seems he wants to ask her for dinner.
- How to use It seems and Sound. -
4. Nothing will happen unless he talks to her.
- How to use unless which means if not.-
Note. Rickey has fallen in love with her. He did at first sight.
- The meanings of fall in live with.-
Note. I have a question about the international situation.
- How to use "I have a question." to ask someone.-

Page 11
1. You can do it!
- How to say when we want to cheer someone.-
2. Take care.
- As the greeting of good-bye.-
3. Oh, you were not able to say.
- How to use be able to and can. -
4. "Ah, I was not able to ask her," he talked to himself
- About talk to oneself.-
5. Better luck next time, Rickey!
- How to cheer if someone fails twice.-
Note. The cat watched them.
- How to use watch, see and look.-

Page 12
1. Let's call it a day.
- How to say when we finish the class or the work.-
2. I'm going to go to Japan next vacation.
- How to use I'm going to... (the plan).-
3. I'm looking forward to going to Kyoto.
- How to use I'm looking forward to... (I'm waiting for something.) -
4. Long time no see.
- The greeting to someone we have not seen long time.-
5. I know some students in the class by sight.
- How to use I know ... by sight (I know only the face).-

Page 13
1. What do you have in mind?
- How to say when we want to know what the hearer think. -
2. Hmm..., by the way, yesterday, I heard the rumor of you and ...
- How to say when we want to change the topic. -
3. What's the cat like?
- How to say when we want to know a appearance. -
Note. I met him by chance and we only walked together.
- How to use by chance -
Note. Another cat was coming.
- How to use another -

Page 14
1. It depends on the time as to how many people are there.
- How to say when we want to do something after looking a situation. -
2. On second thought, I seem to have had the rumor of Pina in mind.
- How to say when we consider that again. -
3. Pina's smile makes me happy.
- How to use the causative verbs. -
Note. The pond is about 100 meters around.
- About the pond ,the lake and the pool. -
Note. A long way from.
- How to explain the place we need some time to get. -

Page 15
1. There might be some lecturers who don't like a cat staying ...
- The relative pronoun of who -
2. But it is all the same to me.
- How to say when we are not interested in it. -
3. Rickey might have borrowed them from the library.
- How to use borrow, lend and etc. -
4. Rickey spends a lot of money on books.
- How to use spend which means using money or time. -

Page 16
1. What's the matter?
- As you might be bad? -
2. No wonder you have a hangover.
- As I do not think it is surprising. -
3. I shouldn't have drunk so much.
- How to say the regretable event of the past. -
Note. "I'm in a bad way," Rickey said and lay on the sofa.
- The difference between lie and lay. -
Note. No wonder you have a hangover.
- About hangover. -

Page 17
1. A cat sat on the grass beside the fountain.
- The difference among beside and near, and besides. -
2. There you are, Sherry.
- How to say when we find someone who we are looking for. -
3. Is this seat taken?
- How to say if we see the seat which no one sits. -
4. In case you didn't know, yesterday evening, Pina was taken.
- How to use in case..., it is used to prepare... -

Page 18
1. She must have bumped against a bicycle.
- The difference between must be... and must have... -
2. Pina's keeper took her to the clinic and she went into the hospital.
- How to say when we bring someone to somewhere. -
3. I was on my way to the clinic.
- How to say when we are walking to somewhere. -
Note. Isn't she okay?
- How to answer if we are asked with the negative interrogative sentence.-

Page 19
1. What's the hurry?
- How to say if we ask why you are hurry. -
2. There used to be nothing here, but it was built several years ago.
- The difference between used to and would. -
3. Where can I see Pina?
- Can you tell me the place where we can do it. -
4. Who me?
- Is it about me?

Page 20
1. Please don't hesitate.
- Please do it as you like. -
2. Would you mind if I smoke?
- How to get the permission. -
- How to use if as the condition. -
3. I tried to stop smoking...actually I haven't broken the habit.
- About a habit which means we do something naturally. -
4. You should stop smoking.
- As a advice of should.
Note.
Make yourself at home.
- Don't be nervous.

Page 21
1. Thinks to you I understand the political situation between...
- How to use thanks to which means something is happened for you. -
2. When I looked at Rickey, he had cold feet.
- He is not able to do it because of having energy. -
3. If I were you, I would say it soon.
- As a advice, if I do it instead of you. -
4. I want him to take courage.
- Want to... is we hope. -
- want + the person + to... is we hope someone do it. -
5. If he continues this way he will only get the cold shoulder...
- When we are ignored. -

Page 22
1. Take a chance, Rickey!
- How to cheer someone. -
2. Would you like to go for dinner with me?
- How to invite someone to somewhere. -
3. Why don't you go to the new Italian restaurant instead?
- How to use instead, for example, we do it as you. -
Note. At that moment, we were feeling that time had stopped.
- About the perception verb. -

Page 23
1. There were cats on the bench on which no one sat.
- About the relative pronoun of which. -
2. I can't say for sure, she needs more time.
- I can't say certainly. -
- I have not confidence. -
3. What if I can't see Pina?
- If we do it, I don't know what happens. -
Note. Something was missing.
- We need something a little. -

Page 24
1. I didn't know what to say.
- As what should I say? -
- About the indirect question. -
2. How did you know so much about it?
- As why could you know that? -
3. I'm getting better.
- I become good more and more. -
4. It made me feel like I haven't seen you for a long time.
- As we have the feeling that we want to do something. -

Page 25
1. Did you lose some weight?
- About our weight. -
2. I decided to ask her.
- When we have the certatin intention. -
3. It means, "the place where there are a variety of plants."
- About the relative adverb of where and when. -
4. And that reminded me of the other one.
- As it give us some hints. -

Page 26
1. May I help you?
- How to order in a restaurant. -
- About a steak. -
2. What's today's specialty?
- As what do you suggest today? -
3. I think you would rather go to a cafe.
- As we want to it instead one. -

Page 27
1. I had my hair washed outside.
- About the causative verb. -
2. I wish I had more guts.
- If I have it or do it. -
- About the subjuntive mood. -
3. Next time...well, it's worth it, maybe...
- It is good to do. -
Note.
- About marriage. -

Page 28
1. It is too easy to say.
- As we do not need more. -
- I can not do it for that. -
- About changing into so...that... -
2. You can say that again.
- As we have the same idea with you. -
3. I know what you mean, but it's too early.
- I know your intention. -
- How to tell you know our idea. -
Note.
- About sorry, sad, disappointed. -

Page 29 (The end of the story.)
1. I was almost late.
- About almost which means 90% of them. -
2. I made it.
- I am not late or I get there. -
3. She might have gone back.
- As a possibility in the present. -
- As a possibility in the past. -
4. I have to play it by ear.
- I do not know what to do, I do it after something is happened. -







Copyright (c) EnglishCafe : Unapproved printing of the text and figure in this site is forbidden.