previous page English Cafe Top following page

3. The co-occurrence with the perfect form
To express the past event, the perfect form can be used. It is usually used with the usage which has the subjective meaning. Therefore, the next examples are the possibility and the necessity. (*24)

*24 It is because the past tense of the subjective meaning is not often used as the indicative mood.

a. John may have left yesterday.
b. He could have missed the train.
c. You should have gone there. (*25)

*25 (1c) is also interpreted as the advice, "it was good if you went there."

"Can" is used in the interrogative and negative sentence, but in the affirmative sentence, "could", "may" and "might" are used instead.

When the perfect form is co-occurred, it implicates the past supposition which is seen from the present. (1a) can be changed into (2).

It is possible that John left yesterday.

The next examples are the co-occurrence of "must."
These are the past supposition of the necessity.

a. You must have known him for a long time.
b. You must have been so happy.

It can be used for the obligation, but it is rare. It is not usually co-occurred with the perfect form and the progressive form.

previous page English Cafe Top following page

Copyright (c) English Cafe : Unapproved printing of the text and figure in this site is forbidden.