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3.3.2. The two usages of the past perfect form
As mentioned above, the past perfect form (PaPF) has the two usages. At first, the past form of the present perfect form (PrPF) is explained. See the following examples.

a. She had already finished dinner before I came back home.
b. Mary had seen the branch chief already before I introduced her.
c. John had been to Japan many times when he visited Kyoto.
d. He hadn't visited his mother when she passed away.

(27a) and (27b) are the Perfective and Resultative usage, (27c) is the Experiencial usage and (27d) is the Continuous usage.
If (27a) is taken as the sample, the adverb clause "before I came back home" is parallel to M. (*15)

*15 This is the basis of the past. The main clause does not have the past adverbial, but this implicates it.

The speaker expresses dinner finished before the point of M. It is parallel to E, therefore, E is moved from M.

The next examples are the other usage, the more past of the past tense.

a. At eleven she had been so hungry.
b. There had been a serious accident before I came here.

If (28a) is taken as the sample, the adverb phrase "At eleven" is parallel to M and "hungry" is to E.
In the case of this, M and E do not have the time relationship like PrPF. It expresses only the time order, that is, it is a mere form to mean the past one more step.

But it is often difficult to classify into the two usage, therefore, these are usually explained as one usage. To explain the time relationship with the time representation, this text classifies it.

See the following figure of PrPF and PaPF.

a. Present perfect form

b. Past perfect form

(29a) has the relation, E - M. M is at the present. Although it changes into the past, this relation is the same. Thus, (29b) is seen.
See the following figure of the past tense and PaPF.

a. Past tense

b. Past perfect form

M and E are at the past in (30a). When E moves to the more past, (30b) is seen. M is basis of E.

Now, M has the same two meanings between PaPF and the past tense. One is the focus put at the past, the other is the separation from the present.

Time feeling

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