This expresses the events occurred in the past continues up to the present. See the following examples.
a. We have lived in Hakodate for five years.
b. The house has been empty for ages.
(10a) means we moved to Hakodate five years ago and we still live there now. (10b) means the house was empty long time ago and it is still empty now. See also the following examples.
a. We have lived here since we were children.
b. We have been good friends since our graduation from high school.
The above is the same. In the continuous usage, to express a duration, for phrase and since phrase/clause are often used. The time representation is as follows.
This is also shown as follows since it has the duration.
Another arrow is put in the above, it means the dration from a certain past to the present.
Now, the stative verb itself has the durative meaning, therefore, "for" and "since" are not needed. (*11)
But the action verbs usually require them. If they are not co-occurred, they are usually interpreted as the Perfective and Resultative usage. See the following examples.
a. I have studied English very hard.
b. I have read the book.
These are not interpreted as the Continuous usage. If they are needed to express continuous, for example, for phrases are put as follows.
a. I have studied English very hard for one year.
b. I have read the book for two days.
But if the action verbs are used like the above, the present perfect progressive form (PrPPF) is often preferred to the present perfect form (PrPF). See the following examples.
a. I have been studying English very hard for one year.
b. I have been reading the book for two days.
These are changed into PrPPF from the previous examples. Moreover some verbs are used more. See the following examples.
a. I have waited here for one hour.
b. I have been waiting here for one hour.
(17b) is preferred to (17a) because it gives us a lively feeling. This sense is explained in the chapter 6.
Moreover, "write", "reach" and "catch" etc. have to be used PrPPF because of the completive meaning. It means the completed act, that is, non-repeated act. Therefore for phrase etc. can not be used. See the following examples.
a. I have written a novel.
b.*I have written a novel for one year.
c. I have been writing a novel.
The three use "write." (18b) is unacceptable since for phrase is co-occurred. (18c) is acceptable. (18a) is also acceptable but it expresses the Perfective and Resultative usage.
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