6.5. Summary of this chapter
The progressive form was explained in this chapter. It expresses the durative act, the future expression, the incompleteness and the temporariness. These are derived from the restricted time. See the following figure.
The restricted time line is put on E. It is certain that it expresses the duration but it restricts this duration simultaneously.
Moreover, the meaning of the present progressive form (PrPro) might be similar to that of the present perfect progressive form (PrPPro).
But actual meanings are different. See the following time representation of PrPPro.
The other time line starts form E and extends to the present. The differences between the two forms is whether the speaker implicates the past in mind or not.
This is also explained with the co-occurrence between the present perfect form (PrPF) and "since." "Since" which means the starting point is usually used with PrPF, because both of the time points are identical. See the following example.
It has been raining since last night.
Therefore, it rarely co-occurs with the present tense and naturally PrPro. The starting point which the speaker has is different.
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