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6.3.3. The past perfect progressive form
The past perfect progressive form (PaPPro) which consists of the past perfect form (PaPF) and the progressive form is the grammatical form. It has not only the past meaning of the present perfect progressive form (PrPPro) but also the further past of the past tense. Therefore, it has the two usages like PaPF, in any case, it expresses the past durative act from a certain past to the past.

a. Mary had been looking for this book before I arrived.
b. John had been watching TV when I came home.

The adverb clauses of the before clause in (33a) and the when clause in (33b) express the past time point, and then the acts of the main clauses extend to them. See the following figure.


The relationship between the three points, S, M and E, is the same as PaPF. Unlike this, the other time line starts from E and extends to M.

If (33b) is taken as the sample, "before I arrived" is parallel to M. *28

*28 Although it is the clause, it is parallel to M since it is subordinate to the main clause time. In view of the main clause, it is implicated in speaker's mind.

The next figure is PrPPro.


Even if it is treated as the past, the relationship between M and E is not changed. therefore, "E to M" is the same in the past, and then the time representation of PaPPro is shown.

Now, in the case of the further past of the past tense, it is represented as the stream from the past progressive form (PaPro) to PaPPro. See the following figures.

a. Past progressive form

b. Past perfect progressive form

If (36a) is treated as the further past, E is separated from M. And then M becomes the basis of E.

Time feeling

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