previous page EnglishCafe Top following page

Page 23

-There were several students at the fountain. A few students sat on the benches. There were cats on the bench on which no one sat. The three cats were sitting side by side talking.-

"She has not been here yet today,"Libre said.
"Yeah, I haven't seen her,"I answered.
"I can't say for sure, she needs some more time,"Buttered talked.

We felt a bad atmosphere swimming across us. Something was missing. And we watched the fountain side by side.
What if I can't see Pina? When I thought so, heavy anxiety suddenly overtook me.

Today's points

-The point 1-

There were cats on the bench on which no one sat.

This "which" is the relative pronoun. "Which no one sat" explains the bench. See the following figure.

"Who" is also the relative pronoun. But it is used to the person. "Which" is used without the person.

By the way, in the above "on" is put before "which", because this "which" of the bench is the object of "sat on."
See the following sentences.

a. There were cats on the bench.
(Cats sat on.)

b. No one sat on the bench.
(Students don't sat on.)

When the bench is changed into "which", (1b) becomes "No one sat on which." And "which" with "on" is moved before "No one", it is seen as the beginning sentence.
See the following figure.

Moreover, this is used like the following.

There were cats on the bench no one sat on.

In the above, if "which" is moved before "no one", "on" is left. And in the case of it, "which" is often omitted. Thus, only "on" is left in the end of the sentence like the above.
See the following figure.

This is often used in spoken.

Hello, Robert.
The sandwich which I bought yesterday was delicious.
Thank you. I keep the sandwich which I made as a special menu.
Oh, thank you. I'll have it.
Hello, Robert.
Oh, hello, Rickey. Have you had lunch yet?
Yes. But I want the sandwich which you took.
Thank you. I have one more.

In the above, the prepositions like on or in are not put before "which" or the end of the sentence, because these are not needed after the noun.
For example, when "The sandwich which I bought yesterday was delicious." is divided into the two, it is as follows.
a. The sandwich was delicious.
b. I bought the sandwich yesterday.
The preposition is not used in (b).
Moreover, "which" is often omitted in spoken.

By the way, these "which" are used as the object, but they are also used as the subject.

Hey, Libre!
Ah, he has noticed us now.
Where is Fiona?
She might have left.
Look! Fiona.
She is walking beside the tree which is standing on the grass.
She'll go home.

What did she say, Libre?
Well, I'll talk to you at the lamppost which stands next to the flower bed.
At the lamppost which no one is standing at will be quiet.
Okay, let's go.

When it is used as the subject, it can not be omitted.

-The point 2-

I can't say for sure, she needs more time.

"For sure" means certainly. If it is used after "I can't say", it means I don't have confidence and I can't say.

Do you know how long we are walking?
I can't say for sure, for about three hours.
Where is his house?

If it is used after "I don't know", it means we do not know certainly what it is.

When will the teacher make an exam?
I don't know for sure.

"I'm not sure." is also used as we don't have confidence.

I'm not sure why he was absent from the meeting.
Maybe, he'll leave here.

I'm not sure if she is a student of this university.
There are a lot of students, lecturers and other people.

-The point 3-

What if I can't see Pina?

"What if …" means we do not know what to do when "…" is occurred. It is used to express worry.

She has to work overtime today.
Really? Today's birthday party is for her.
Yes, I know. What if she can't come to the party?
I have no idea.

What if she forgot me?
Take it easy. You have only to go and see her.


Something was missing.

"Be missing" means we do not have something. The above is used as we feel lonely a little or feel something to need.

It has been one year since I broke up with her.
One year … , but you get well.
But something is missing.

previous page EnglishCafe Top following page

Copyright (c) EnglishCafe : Unapproved printing of the text and figure in this site is forbidden.