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3.1.2. Continuous

This usage means the event which is occurred certainly in the past has the duration to the present.

a. We have lived in Hakodate for five years.
b. The house has been empty for ages.

(10a) means living for five years from a certain past to the present. (10b) is the same. In the above, "for" is used, it means a period and it is often used with the continuous usage. And "since" is also used, because it means the starting point and has the duration.

See the figure of PrPF.


The above is shown in the previous section. The red circle means the event and the blue line means the speaker's feeling.
But the red circle can be changed into the following by the continuous meaning.


The red line which was the red circle means the duration from a certain past to the present.

Time sensation cut

Now, "for" is often used with this usage as mentioned above, but there are some cases which "for" can not be used, it depends on verbs.

The verbs can be classified roughly into the two, the stative verb and the action verb. Stative verbs have the duration and co-occurs with "for." For example, in (10) the stative verbs are used.

But in the case of the action verbs, it can not sometimes be co-occurred.

(13) I have read the book for two days.

"Read" is the action verb but it can co-occur with "for", because it does not mean completive.

(14) *I have written a novel for one year.

"Write" can not co-occur with "for" as it is, because it means completive. Thus, it needs a form change as follows.

(15) I have been writing a novel for one year.

The above is the present perfect progressive form (PrPPro). It is grammatical and acceptable. This form is explained again in the chapter 5. Moreover, the completion means the end of the act, when the verbs can express the repeated act, "for" can be used without PrPPro. "Write" or "reach" etc. does not have its meaning.

Time sensation cut

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