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This expresses the speaker's experience. (*13)

*13 This is also called Existential, because the experiential usage is not parallel to the subject of things.

a. I've been to France once.
b. I've never seen Lac Leman. Have you ever seen it?

(19a) means the frequency to France, and (19b) means whether s/he sees it or not. Therefore, the adverbs, "ever", "never", "often", "sometimes", "once" etc. are often co-occurred with this usage. See the following time representation.


We can consider that E is a long way from the present unlike the Perfective and Resultative usage. Therefore, it might be difficult to think something reflects on the present. But the speaker's focus is not put at the past, that is, the speaker sees the event from the present.
For example, the interrogative sentence of (19b) does not ask when s/he saw it, it asks if s/he has the experience of seeing it.

Time feeling

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