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1. The present tense as the center of the time line
1.1. The fundamental usage of the present tense
1.1.1. The time representation of the present tense

The present tense is used to express the present events, that is to say, all the time without the past. Therefore, the present tense is also classified into the past and the non-past. See the following figure of the present tense.


*5 The three points, S, M, E are also explained in the Introduction.

In the above, S is "point of speech" which is put at the present, E is "point of the event." And M is "point of mind", that is, the point of the speaker's feeling. S/he puts the focus on it at an utterance.

For example, the focus is put at the present in the above, it also means the speaker's feeling is not separated from the present. If it moves to the past, it means the separation from the present and s/he does not have a mental contact with it. These meanings are parallel to the past tense. But to explain these in detail, we need the past tense section to compare. Therefore, we only say now, the focus of the speaker's mind point represented by M is put on the present without the past and the future. This is subordinate to the time adverbials. (*6)

*6 R (point of reference) of Reichenbach is also subordinate to the time adverbials. But M (point of mind) is not only subordinate to it.

The ", (comma)" between S and E means both of them are simultaneous. The utterance is the present and the speaker's mind is also the present, and then s/he treats the event simultaneously.

Time feeling 01

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