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6.2.2. The duration of the active verb
The progressive form expresses a durative act. When an utterance is made, the act has already been occurring. See the following examples.

a. I am taking classes in English.
b. I'm baking some bread.

(4a) means the speaker study English once a week and has to study many times. (4b) means bread has not been made yet. These are called the present progressive form (PrPro), see the following figure.


The next examples are the past progressive form (PaPro).

a. He was reading when I entered.
b. Her children were playing in the garden when she called them.

The durative meaning is the same, but the acts are in the past. The speaker put the focus at the past, see the following figure.


If (6a) is taken as a sample, when clause is parallel to M, the main clause is parallel to E and the durative time line. (*24)

*24 Since when clause means the time which is subordinate to the main clause, it is parallel to M. In view of the main clause, it is the implicative time.

Now, if a completive verb is used, it expresses the repeated act. See the following examples.

a. Fans were jumping up and down.
b. I thought someone was knocking at the door.

These verbs expresses the completive act, therefore, they can also be shown as follows.


One circle means one act.

As mentioned above, the progressive form usually uses the active verbs to express the duration. If the stative verbs are used, their meanings are treated as the acts. See the following examples.

a. Mary is seeing someone after she failed in love.
b. I'm thinking of dyeing my hair this summer.

These verbs are often used as the stative meaning but they are treated as the active meaning with the progressive form. Therefore, "see" of (10a) means "meet", and "think" of (10b) means "consider."

But the stative verbs can sometimes be used as the stative meaning. This is explained in 6.2.3 and 6.2.4.

Time feeling

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