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3.4. Summary of this chapter and the previous chapter.
The past tense is explained in the previous chapter, the present perfect form (PrPF) and the past perfect form (PaPF) are explained in this chapter.

The past tense means the separation from the present. The speaker puts the definite past in mind and the focus is put at the past.
See the following figure.


M expresses the speaker's focus and the relationship of the event are separated from the present.
See the following figure of PrPF.


M is put at the present. It means the speaker's focus is at the present and s/he keeps the relationship of the event.

To use the two forms properly depends on the speaker's mind. If s/he puts the definite past, the past tense is used, if not, PrPF is used.

Time feeling

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