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This text, "The sense of time in English 2", is composed to feel the time relationship of English. We can understand the feelings when we use the present perfect form, or a difference between it and the past tense.
This target is for the intermediate course, for example, who have some English grammar. If we think beginners, we can first read "The sense of time in English 1", which is composed for the primary course.
This explains in detail to understand much.

Tense and aspect are mainly explained with three points, S, M, E and a time line which derived from S, R, E of Reichenbach (1947). SRE system is old but it is useful to tell us tense and aspect easily. Therefore, we have a rethink on it and explain them in this text.
About the three points, S is the point of speech, E is the point of the event, M is the point of mind. Especially M is used instead of R which is used in Reichenbach as the point of reference, it is important in this text. In the chapter 5, M is defined finally.
It is explained many times before that chapter, we can understand it some degree by the chapter, and we can see moreover in it.

We can see tense and aspect in English visually with the three points and the time line. In addition to them, the subjunctive mood is explained. Although this is not tense and aspect, to understand it, it is explained with SME.

Time feeling 1

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