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2.1. The permission ( subjectiveness - objective meaning)
The permission of "may" is more formal than that of "can." And "may" have subjective but "can" have objective, therefore, if the speaker gives the permission, "may" is used. "Can" is used in view of the generalities.

a. You may go now.
b. You may take out three books from the library.

To utter (2a) the speaker needs the authority. Moreover, when it is used for the interrogative sentence, it expresses the hearer's authority, that is, it means the speaker regard the hearer. See the following examples.

a. May I come in?
b. May I open the window? Yes, you may.

As the answer, "Yes, you may" or "No, you may not" can be used, but "can" is often used instead not to give a haughty meaning. See the following example.

May I smoke? Yes, you can.

The next example uses "might" of this meaning.

a.* You might go.
b. You were allowed to go.

(5a) is not the sequence of tense, therefore, it is unacceptable. "Was allowed to" and "could" are used instead like (5b).

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