6.3. The perfect progressive form
The perfect progressive form is the grammatical form which consists of the perfect form and the progressive form. Therefore, it has three forms, the past perfect progressive form (PaPPro), the present perfect progressive form (PrPPro), the future perfect progressive form (FuPPro).
6.3.1. The present perfect progressive form
The present perfect form (PrPF) consists of "have" and the past participle, the present perfect progressive form (PrPPro) consists of "have been" and the present participle, PrPF has the three usages, the Perfective and Resultative usage, the Continuous usage, the Experiencial usage. But PrPPro has the only Continuous usage.
Although PrPF has Continuous, PrPPro is used for the active verb. See the following examples.
a. I have read these reports.
b. I have been reading these reports.
(26a) is interpreted to the Perfective and Resultative usage, since the active verb is used. But (26b) expresses Continuous. The next examples are the same.
a. I have written the letter.
b. I have been writing the letter.
This time representation is as follows.
The time line which starts from a certain past is put on the above. It is different from the other progressive form, this is explained in the next subsection.
Now, the for phrase and the since phrase/clause can be used for the active verbs to express Continuous. See the following examples.
a. We have waited here for an hour.
b. I have read a novel for two days.
The above expresses Continuous. But the progressive form is often used in spoken to feel it lively, especially for "wait", "sit" and "sleep" etc. *26
When PrPPro is used for the stative verb, it means temporary (Cf. 6.2.5.). See the following examples.
a. We have been living here since last month.
b. I've been working ten hours a day recently.
Both of them means several days.
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