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3.1.1. Completive and Resultative

This expresses the event which occurs near past. The speaker has the relation between the event and the past.

a. The clock has just struck ten.
b. The river has frozen.

In the above, if they are classified more, (5a) is completive and (5b) is resultative. The difference of them is that the resultative usage means something is seen after an event and the completive usage means it is not seen.
Anyway, the two expresses the near past event.

Do you know why PrPF is used to express the past event?
In the above examples, the events are certainly in the past, we can use the past tense.

a. The clock struck ten.
b. The river froze.

The above is the past tense changed from (5). At this point, the speaker treats the events as the past and has the separation feeling from the present. See the following figure.


When the speaker's mind is in the present, PrPF is used. See the following figure.


Even if the event is in the past, PrPF is used because s/he treats it from the present.

Time sensation cut

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